Prevention of Football Injuries Part I of II: Heatstroke
Soon summer football training camps and practice sessions will be in full swing in Northeastern Pennsylvania. I remember all too well, washing down the dust from the practice field at Scranton Memorial Stadium with water from a hose. We were eager to drink ample water to dilute the awful taste of salt tables on a steamy summer day. In spite of limited information available at that time, I must commend coach “Moe” DeCantis and his staff for making sure we had plenty of water breaks.
For the next two weeks, this column will focus on “Prevention of Football Injuries” in an attempt to raise the level of consciousness and to educate coaches, players and parents about the importance of injury prevention. While most high school programs have certified athletic trainers on staff, I am more concerned with the youth football programs. Often, these players are coached by a well-intended, but not well-informed parent without access to trainers or other medical personal at practices and games.
Tony Cantafio, head football coach at Scranton Prep states that in spite of the appearance of intensity on the field, he takes the health and well-being of his players very seriously. He keeps a close eye on players and always defers to his medical staff, lead by Ted Tomaszewski, MD and Jeanne Kowalski MS, ATC for health related decisions.
William Dempsey, MD, Medical Director of the Human Performance Lab at Marywood University and team physician for Lackawanna College Football feels prevention is the best treatment for heat stroke. He feels that overweight and poorly conditioned players should be monitored closely by weighing in before and after practice. A player who loses more than 3% body weight is at risk for heat stroke. These players should be required to take more breaks, with more fluid intake before, during and after practice.
Heat stroke one of the most serious heat-related illnesses. It is the result of long term exposure to the sun to the point which a person cannot sweat enough to lower the body temperature. The elderly and infants are most susceptible. It can be fatal if not managed properly and immediately. Believe it or not, the exact cause of heatstroke is unclear. Prevention is the best treatment because it can strike suddenly and without warning. It can also occur in non athletes at outdoor concerts, outdoor carnivals, or backyard activities. The American Academy of Pediatrics and The American College of Sports Medicine has the following recommendations:
Signs of Heatstroke
Heat Exhaustion – can be a precursor to heat stroke
- Signs: cramps, weakness, fatigue, nausa
- Treatment: rest in shade, cool down with cool (not cold) towels, and drink plenty of fluids.
- Core Body Temperature above 105 degrees Fahrenheit
- Hot, dry skin – flushed but not sweaty
- Lack of sweating **NOTE: athletes often have external heatstroke and they can sweat even with an increase core temperature
- Very rapid pulse
- Mental confusion, disorientation or hallucinations
- Physical clumsiness, sluggishness or fatigue
Treatment of Heatstroke
- CALL 911 – Remember this may be life-threatening
- Relocate Athlete – to a cool shady place or air-conditioned indoors and lie down with slight elevation of feet
- Undress – Remove outer garments and roll onto side to expose as much skin as possible to the air
- Cool Down – spray or sponge with cool water (not cold) and fan athlete
- Ice – place ice packs to the groin, neck and armpits to cool down large blood vessels. No ice bath.
- Core Temperature – is the only accurate measurement so medical personnel may take rectal temp if necessary. Must get core temp to 102 degrees Fahrenheit ASAP.
- Begin CPR – if breathing stops
- No Aspirin or Acetaminophen – to decrease temp
- Administer Fluids – if person is alert enough to swallow give 32 to 64 oz over 1-2 hours
Prevention of Heatstroke
- Gradual Acclimatization to Heat – Get used to the heat gradually. Begin short conditioning sessions in early summer. Have shorter and less intense practices for the first 7-10 days. If athlete recently had the flu or an illness with a temperature, keep them home for a while and gradually introduce the heat and humidity with short periods of exercise. They are at increased risk for heat stroke.
- Humidity Index (RI) – Be very aware of the temperature (T) and the relative humidity (RH). RI = T + RH. If the sum of the temperature and relative humidity are greater than or equal to 160, take serious precautions (short sessions in early morning or evening, shorts and half pads, plenty of water and sports drinks etc). If the sum of T and RH are greater than 180, practice and/or games should be canceled.
- Take Frequent Breaks – 15 minutes after each hour if T & RH is equal to or greater than 160. Rest in shaded areas, helmets off, jerseys loosened or off.
- Unlimited Cold Water – should be available at all times. Mandatory scheduled water breaks every 15-20 minutes. Break in a shaded area and water down your head, neck etc to cool down. Guidelines: 16 oz 2 hours prior to activity, ½ water bottle every break, after practice continue drinking 1 cup per hour for 4-5 hours, avoid caffeine drinks (can dehydrate), avoid carbonated drinks (bloating will limit water intake) and avoid alcohol.
- Electrolyte Sports Drinks – are very helpful to replace electrolyte loss. DO NOT USE SALT TABLETS. Generously season food and use sports drinks instead.
- Dress For Heat – use drytecR type material under your pads to wick sweat away from body and change shirts at break. Wear light colors. Use fishnet jerseys over your pads to keep cool. Remove helmets often in hot weather.
- Medical Files - keep an index of individual athletes with medical problems or history for problems, especially those at risk for heat related problems. Certain medications may put an athlete at risk for heat stroke. Pay special attention to those players.
- Keep Alert – coaches, parents, players must be on the lookout for signs of a problem in themselves and their teammates such as fatigue, lethargy, inattention, stupor, and loss of coordination. Remove the athlete from the field, cool down in shade with cool (not cold) damp towel/blanket, seek medical attention.
DO NOT IGNORE SIGNS OF PLAYER DISTRESS OR POOR PRACTICE MANAGEMENT – YOU MAY SAVE A LIFE! – If you witness signs of a player in distress or signs of poor practice management that may jeopardize the health of an athlete, diplomatically speak up. Use references to educate those in charge to recognize there mistakes and improve conditions. Problems occur not because of malice, but usually because of ignorance.
NEXT MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” Next Week: “Prevention of Football Injuries in Youth Football”
This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an affiliated faculty member at the University of Scranton, PT Dept.