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It is four months since many people have made their health and fitness resolutions and hopefully some have stayed the course.  If you are looking for another reason to stick to your New Year’s Resolution to get fit and lose weight in 2024 try this…to improve or prevent hip and knee pain!

There are three major weight-bearing joints in the body, the hip, knee and ankle/foot. Consequently, wear and tear and arthritis are common among these joints. There are almost 800,000 knee replacements and 450,000 hip replacements annually in the United States alone. While there are many recommended methods to avoid or delay joint replacement, only a few are within our control. Genetics, trauma, degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis are difficult to control. However, body weight, aggressive weight bearing sports and overdoing exercises as you age like excessive running, jumping, lifting and squatting can be modified or eliminated to limit the progression of joint damage.  According to WebMD, “your knees are powerhouses. They’re the biggest, strongest, joints in your body, and most people use them throughout the day to sit, stand, walk, jump, and bend. They bear 80% of your body weight when you stand still and 150% or more when you walk across the room. In a 160-pound person, that’s 240 pounds of force!”

Body Weight and Hip & Knee Pain

According to the National Institutes of Health, body weight or body mass index (BMI) has a direct impact on hip and knee degeneration, pain and dysfunction. In fact, one study found that people with or at risk of significant hip/knee osteoarthritis had a 2-3% reduction in risk of hip or knee replacement for every 1% reduction in weight, regardless of the baseline BMI.

It is commonly known that the primary cause of osteoarthritis is normal wear and tear, especially for those over 50. However, extra body weight can accelerate this process. As the joint degenerates, the cartilage at the end and in between your joints gets compressed and dehydrated which leads to deterioration. Eventually, the bones rub directly on each other as the cushion wears away, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness, loss of motion, strength and function.   

While it may seem obvious that extra weight will put more strain and stress on the hip and knee joints; another mechanism involved in this degenerative process. Excess body fat can increase chemicals in your blood stream that can cause inflammation in your joints.

How to Maintain a Healthy Body Weight

If you need a goal and a motive, how about this: losing even 10 pounds will equate to 40 pounds less force compressing and stressing your hips and knees. Moreover, reducing body fat will limit the hormones that cause inflammation in your joints. Talk to your primary care physician or visit www.cdc .gov to find a BMI calculator. Just plug in your height and weight and it calculates it for you. For example, a 155-pound male at 5 feet 8 inches tall has a BMI of 23.6. (A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered a healthy weight for this person).

Diet

The Mediterranean Diet is a solid start to eating healthy. It is less of a diet and more of a lifestyle. The foundation of this diet is plant foods built around vegetables, fruits, herbs, nuts, beans and whole grains. Moderate amounts of fish, dairy, poultry and eggs with limited consumption of red meat are paramount. The Mediterranean lifestyle also includes shared meals with family and friends, small portions, regular exercise, and wine in moderation with food and friends.

Exercise

Exercise has many more benefits than just losing weight. Physical activity is one of the most important factors in improving a lifestyle in a positive way. A minimum of 30 minutes of physical activity, 5 days per week can greatly contribute to weight loss and longevity.  

Researchers have found that the benefits of regular physical activity are numerous. Some of the more important benefits are:

Some simple suggestions for beginning an exercise program are:

 Visit your doctor regularly and listen to your body.     

  Keep moving, eat healthy foods, exercise regularly, and live long and well

SOURCES: WebMD, National Institutes of Health; CDC, American Council on Exercise

EVERY MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” via Blog

EVERY SUNDAY in "The Sunday Times" - Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” in hard copy

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy in Scranton and Clarks Summit. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. For all of Dr. Mackarey's articles, visit our exercise forum!

What is a myth?

A myth is a traditional story, idea, or belief, especially one concerning early history of a people or explaining a natural or social phenomenon. It is a widely held but false belief or idea. In medicine, health myths are also widely held beliefs about health issues such as medicines, herbs, treatments, cures, antidotes, etc. which are partially or totally false and unsubstantiated in the scientific literature. This is a partial list of the most common health myths:

  1. 8 GLASSES OF WATER IS ESSENTIAL FOR GOOD HEALTH
    • You don’t need to search very long to find copious information purporting the value of water to maintain good health. Sources suggest between 8 and 15 cups of water per day! Despite the plethora of contradictory information, there is no research to support an exact amount. In fact, most scientifically validated research suggests that healthy adults do not need to count cups and those who drink water when thirsty receive adequate hydration for good health. Remember, there are many water-rich foods to provide hydration; soup, fruit, vegetables, juice, coffee, and tea. However, be aware that if your urine is dark yellow you need more hydration. And, if you are very physically active or live in a warm climate, you may require more water.
  2. EATING EGGS WILL LEAD TO HEART DISEASE
    • In the late 70’s, eggs received a bad reputation when high cholesterol in the blood could increase the risk of heart disease. The love-hate relationship with eggs and egg products has continued to grow since. However, recent findings suggest that eating an egg or two a day will not raise the risk of heart disease in healthy adults. While egg yolks do contain cholesterol, the amount is relatively small and is offset by the fact that eggs also have many nutrients such as omega-3’s, which are associated with lowering the risk of heart disease.
  3. ANTIPERSPIRANTS CAN LEAD TO BREAST CANCER
    • Some research attempted to link the preservatives (parabens) used in some deodorants and antiperspirants with the activity of estrogen in the body’s cells because these parabens are found in breast tumors. However, there is no scientific evidence that parabens cause breast cancer. So, don’t sweat it!
  4. SPENDING TOO MUCH TIME IN THE COLD AIR WILL LEAD TO A COLD
    • Sometimes “old wives tales” are true…but not this one! Grandparents and parents have been telling their grandchildren and children to button up and don’t spend too much time in the cold. In fact, one study found that healthy men who spent several hours a day in cold temperatures (just above freezing) had an increase in virus-fighting activity in their immune systems. Moreover, documentation supports that spending too much time indoors, especially during winter flu season, puts you at risk for getting the flu…so circulate fresh air or get outdoors!
  5. EVERYONE NEEDS A MULTIVITAMIN TO BE HEALTHY
    • Research does not support this theory that everyone needs a multivitamin to supplement for nutrients not in your diet. In fact, most medical experts agree that healthy adults receive all necessary nutrients and vitamins from a well-balanced diet including; fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and healthy oils. However, if your physician recommends a vitamin, do so. It may be that you are insufficient or at risk due to other medical conditions. If you are pregnant, for example, you will need to take folic acid to lower the risk of birth defects. 
  6. EATING A GOOD BREAKFAST IS NECESSARY TO LOSE WEIGHT
    • Some diets purport that eating breakfast is necessary to stimulate your metabolism in order to lose weight. This theory is not confirmed, and for those who enjoy breakfast, it may limit hunger sensation and prevent unhealthy snacking. However, a study from Cornell University found that those who did not eat breakfast did not overeat at lunch and dinner and consumed approximately 400 fewer calories per day. So, for some healthy adults, eliminating breakfast can help lose weight…the premise of “intermittent fasting.”
  7. GREEN MUCUS IS A SURE SIGN OF INFECTION
    • Most would agree, the slimy green mucus in your tissue is disgusting. However, without a lab test, it is not a sure sign of an infection or need for antibiotics. Often, clear mucus indicates a sinus infection, while green mucus represents a common cold.
  8. TOO MUCH SUGAR MAKES KIDS HYPERACTIVE
    • Sugar making your kids hyper? Maybe it’s just kids being kids! It is widely accepted that sugar is not good for kids (unhealthy calories leading to obesity, etc). However, Research shows that it is not the cause of hyperactivity (caffeine or chocolate may). It may be that parents are so focused on their behavior after sugar intake that they expect their kids to be wired when it may just be attributed to the normal behavior of kids just being kids!
  9. A TOILET SEAT IS A COMMON AREA TO SPREAD DISEASE
    • Believe it or not, toilet seats are not the most unsanitary item in the bathroom. So, if you can’t cover it, don’t sweat it. Bugs such as E. coli, norovirus, and other flu viruses cover bathroom doors, door handles, and floors. Thorough hand washing is essential and use a paper towel for door handles.
  10. CRACKING YOUR KNUCKLES OR OTHER JOINTS WILL LEAD TO ARTHRITIS
    • One thing is certain…cracking your knuckles is annoying to everyone around you! But studies show that it is not harmful to your joints or causes arthritis. The popping noise is not because the bones are grinding together; it is due to movement of gas bubbles in the joint capsule.  
  11. ELIMINATING FAT FROM YOUR DIET WILL MAKE YOU HEALTHIER AND HELP YOU LOOSE WEIGHT
    • Total elimination of fat from your diet is not only unnecessary to be healthy and lose weight, but is unhealthy and harmful. Fat provides essential nutrients and is an important component of a healthy diet. Due to the fact that fats have more calories per gram than protein or carbohydrates, limiting fat intake is necessary to avoid extra calories. Instead, chose low fat dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese) and consider eating small amounts of food with healthy fats, such as avocados, olives, or nuts. 
  12. CHILDHOOD VACCINES LEAD TO AUTISM
    • Vaccines do not cause autism. Despite much controversy, there is no scientific evidence that supports a connection between autism and childhood vaccines. In fact, the original study that started the debate years ago has been disproven and retracted. Fact: childhood vaccines protect children from a variety of serious or potentially fatal diseases.

SOURCES: WebMd; National Institutes of Health, Mayo Clinic

EVERY MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” via Blog

EVERY SUNDAY in "The Sunday Times" - Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” in hard copy

This article does not intend as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy in Scranton and Clarks Summit. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine. For all of Dr. Mackarey's articles, visit our exercise forum!

Studies have shown a recent escalation of joint replacements in a much younger and more active group than previously noted…the baby boomer! While the end result is mostly physical, the cause is often psychological. We all know the personality type: type A, hyperactive, goal-oriented, driven, possessed and highly organized – almost at all costs! Many of you have seen fitness enthusiasts running through the streets at 5:30 AM for 5-10-15 miles each day. Moreover, many of these runners have more activities planned later in the day: golf, tennis, ski, swim, play sports with their kids. Well, after 20 years of this behavior, many of these enthusiasts are now suffering the effects of long term multiple micro traumas. They are suffering from what orthopedic surgeons at the University of Pennsylvania call “Boomeritis! Boomeritis is inflammation of the baby boomer from overuse. Lower back pain, hip, groin, and knee pain is almost a daily event.

As baby boomers continue to enjoy sports with the same vigor and intensity as when they were younger, they are finding that their older bodies just can’t keep up. While these individuals often succeed in finding the balance of fitness and craziness, they have had times when they took it too far. Furthermore, nearly all compulsive exercisers suffer from over training syndrome. When take too far compulsive behavior is rationalized by insisting that if they didn’t work to extreme then their performance would suffer.

10 Warning Signs of a Compulsive Exerciser (E. Quinn):

*Each sign is worth 1 point:

10 Warning Signs of Overtraining (E. Quinn):

Managing Overtraining

If you have two or more of the warning sings, consult your family physician to rule out potentially serious problems.

TIPS TO AVOID EARLY JOINT DEGENERATION

Avoid weight bearing exercises two days in a row. Run one day, walk, swim or bike the next.

Use the elliptical instead of the treadmill.    

Avoid squatting…deep squatting is bad for your hips and knees. Even when gardening, use a kneeling pad instead of bending down and squatting.

Visit your family doctor regularly and listen to your body.     

EVERY MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” via Blog

EVERY SUNDAY in "The Sunday Times" - Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!” in hard copy

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at GCSOM.

For all of Dr. Mackarey's articles, visit our exercise forum!

Spring, Summer, Winter or Fall…weather changes can cause joint pain!

It is not just a cold weather problem…

“Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it,” said Mark Twain. Just ask 93% of the arthritis sufferers who believe that the weather affects their pain level. History tells us that Benjamin Franklin, Leonardo da Vinci, and Christopher Columbus also felt this way about the weather.

Patients at our clinic have been particularly sensitive to joint pain on cold, damp days, especially during the past few weeks. In my clinical practice of orthopedic and sports physical therapy, an informal survey found that 95 out of 100 patients (95%) with arthritis reported increased pain with weather changes. While most people report that the coldness and dampness seem to irritate their joints, they also report more pain with weather changes in the summer. There is a reasonable explanation…

Joints in the body have a lining called synovium that secretes a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. In joints with arthritis, there is an overproduction of synovial fluid. In theory, when the barometric pressure changes, so to will the pressure inside your joints, especially if it is already overfull with extra fluid from arthritis. This added pressure stimulates the nerve endings in the joint to produce inflammation and pain.

Despite this overwhelming response from patients, scientific studies vary in their support of this claim. According to the Mayo Clinic, in 1961, a famous arthritis doctor (rheumatologist), built a climate chamber and discovered that when high humidity was combined with low barometric pressure, patients reported increased joint pain and stiffness. A recent study found that changes in barometric pressure and cooler temperatures are associated with joint pain. However, other studies have found increased joint pain with high barometric pressure in both warm and cold weather while another study found pain with low pressure.

What does this mean? It means that patients with arthritis consistently report pain with weather changes but science has not found an accurate method to consistently support these claims. Some of these inconsistencies may be attributed to the fact that there are differences in sensitivity among individuals. For example, some patients have symptoms before the weather changes, while others notice symptoms during or after the weather changes. Still yet, some report more pain in colder conditions while others notice more pain in warmer weather. It appears that changes in the weather, such as a high to a low or warm dry to cold damp and vice versa is the culprit when it comes to irritating arthritis in a joint.

If I have arthritis, should you move to Arizona? Yes and no! Yes, the warm and dry climate of Arizona will probably make you feel better overall. However, it will not cure the degenerative changes in your joints and you may still have pain when CHANGES in the weather occur. This is proven to be true by the fact that there are many very busy rheumatologists in Arizona!

In conclusion, it is safe to say that there is some evidence to support the claim that most patients with arthritis have increased symptoms of joint pain and stiffness with CHANGES in the weather:

Therefore, each patient must be individually evaluated by their physician to determine the extent of their arthritis and its relationship to the changes in the weather. While the cause of their increased symptoms with changes in the weather may not be completely understood, each patient must determine the adjustments in their lifestyle and/or medications according to the particular weather patterns that affect their problem most.

Visit your doctor regularly and listen to your body.     

NEXT SUNDAY IN THE PAPER AND EVERY MONDAY'S BLOG – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!”  

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at GCSOM. For all of Dr. Mackarey's articles, visit our exercise forum!

Have Fun and Get in Shape!

Memorial Day is the unofficial kickoff to summer…outdoor furniture is out, the grill is fired up and the pool is open! This summer try to think of your pleasure puddle in different light…a health spa! It may very well be the exercise of choice for many people. Many have discovered the benefits of moving their limbs in the warm water of a home pool following knee or shoulder surgery. Also, long distance runners who often look for cross training methods without joint compression and arthritis sufferers who are often limited in exercise choices by joint pain from compressive forces when bearing weight, can enjoy the buoyancy effects of  water. These are good examples of the benefits or water exercise…aerobic and resistive exercise without joint compression.  

Exercise and Arthritis

Most doctors recommend some form of exercise with arthritis. Pain and fatigue are the most limiting factors for the person with arthritis. Pool exercise may be the answer. With proper technique, adequate rest periods, appropriate resistance and repetitions, water exercise can be very effective.

Benefits

The following are some of the benefits of water exercise:

Getting Started

  1. Start Slowly – Don’t Overdo it
    • 5-10 minutes and repetitions first time and add 2-3 minutes/repetitions each week
    • Long Term Goal: 20 – 40 minutes per session - 3-4 times per week
  2. Submerge The Body Part - That you want to exercise into the water and move it slowly
  3. Complete The Range of Motion - Initially 5 times, then 10-15-20-30 times
  4. Assess - Determine if you have pain 3-4 hours after you exercise or into the next day. If so you overdid it and make adjustments next time by decreasing repetitions, speed, amount and intensity of exercise.
  5. Warm-Up - Make sure you warm up slowly before the exercise with slow and easy Movements
  6. Advance Slowly - By adding webbed gloves, weighted boots, and buoyant barbells to increase the resistance.
  7. Exercises – standing in shallow end of pool
    • Heel Raises - push toes down and heel up
    • Toe Raises – lift toes up and heel down
    • Leg Kicks – extend leg up and down
    • Hip Hike – raise knee up 4-6 inches and down
    • Leg Squeeze – squeeze knees together and apart
    • Leg Curl – bend knee
    • Torso Twist – slowly turn arms/torso to right, then to left
    • Shoulder Forward and Backward – like paddling a boat
    • Shoulder Out and In – like a bird flying
    • Bend Elbow Up and Down

Visit your doctor regularly and listen to your body.     

NEXT MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!”  

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at GCSOM. For all of Dr. Mackarey's articles, visit our Health and Exercise Forum!

Spring, Summer, Winter or Fall…the weather changes can cause joint pain! It is not just a cold weather problem…

“Everybody talks about the weather, but nobody does anything about it,” said Mark Twain. Just ask 93% of the arthritis sufferers who believe that the weather affects their pain level. History tells us that Benjamin Franklin, Leonardo da Vinci, and Christopher Columbus also felt this way about the weather.

Patients at our clinic have been particularly sensitive to joint pain on cold, damp days, especially during the past few weeks. In my clinical practice of orthopedic and sports physical therapy, an informal survey found that 95 out of 100 patients (95%) with arthritis reported increased pain with weather changes. While most people report that the coldness and dampness seem to irritate their joints, they also report more pain with weather changes in the summer. There is a reasonable explanation…

Our Joints

Joints in the body have a lining called synovium that secretes a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. In joints with arthritis, there is an overproduction of synovial fluid. In theory, when the barometric pressure changes, so to will the pressure inside your joints, especially if it is already overfull with extra fluid from arthritis. This added pressure stimulates the nerve endings in the joint to produce inflammation and pain.

The Reasearch

Despite this overwhelming response from patients, scientific studies vary in their support of this claim. According to the Mayo Clinic, in 1961, a famous arthritis doctor (rheumatologist), built a climate chamber and discovered that when high humidity was combined with low barometric pressure, patients reported increased joint pain and stiffness. A recent study found that changes in barometric pressure and cooler temperatures are associated with joint pain. However, other studies have found increased joint pain with high barometric pressure in both warm and cold weather while another study found pain with low pressure.

What does this mean?

It means that patients with arthritis consistently report pain with weather changes but science has not found an accurate method to consistently support these claims. Some of these inconsistencies may be attributed to the fact that there are differences in sensitivity among individuals. For example, some patients have symptoms before the weather changes, while others notice symptoms during or after the weather changes. Still yet, some report more pain in colder conditions while others notice more pain in warmer weather. It appears that changes in the weather, such as a high to a low or warm dry to cold damp and vice versa is the culprit when it comes to irritating arthritis in a joint.

If I have arthritis, should you move to Arizona? Yes and no! Yes, the warm and dry climate of Arizona will probably make you feel better overall. However, it will not cure the degenerative changes in your joints and you may still have pain when CHANGES in the weather occur. This is proven to be true by the fact that there are many very busy rheumatologists in Arizona!

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is safe to say that there is some evidence to support the claim that most patients with arthritis have increased symptoms of joint pain and stiffness with CHANGES in the weather:

Therefore, each patient must be individually evaluated by their physician to determine the extent of their arthritis and its relationship to the changes in the weather. While the cause of their increased symptoms with changes in the weather may not be completely understood, each patient must determine the adjustments in their lifestyle and/or medications according to the particular weather patterns that affect their problem most.

Visit your doctor regularly and listen to your body.     

NEXT MONDAY – Read Dr. Paul J. Mackarey “Health & Exercise Forum!”  

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

Read all of Dr. Mackarey's articles at https://mackareyphysicaltherapy.com/forum/

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at GCSOM.

10 Ways To Protect Your Joints This Winter!

The Problem:

Osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis, is often considered to be a normal part of aging. Usually by the age of forty our joints, especially those which are weight bearing (lower spine, hips, knees, ankles, feet) begin to show signs of wear and tear. The cartilage begins to thin, joint surfaces are not as smooth, and fluid which lubricates the joint becomes diluted, dehydrated and less protective. Consequently, these aging joints become stiff, sore, weak, and  swollen. Most people with osteoarthritis report additional pain and stiffness in the winter and early spring due to cold, damp weather and NEPA has plenty of it! The cold, for example, restricts the flow of blood to the joints, leading to more pain and stiffness. While moving to a warmer and less humid climate is one solution, it is not practical for most. But all is not lost because there are other alternatives to protect and keep your joints healthier this winter and early spring. And, if you are looking for some practical gift ideas for your loved ones suffering from arthritis, these tips may be valuable.

1.Parafin Bath and Hot Packs:

A paraffin bath is one of the best methods to apply heat to your hands and feet to ease pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis. A special heating unit works like a crock pot to melt the wax to liquid form. The hands and/or feet are dipped into the wax several times to create a warm coating around the entire area. A 20 to 30 minute treatment while watching TV or listening to good music will provide pain relief, improve mobility in the joints and bring life back to winter damaged skin. $39.99 to $159.99 (www.bedbathandbeyond.com). Hot packs, electric and microwavable, offer heat to bring blood flow and lessen joint pain and stiffness. They are great for neck and lower back pain, depending on the shape of the pad. Consider rectangle for lower back and cylinder/round to wrap around neck and joints of arms and legs. SourceMed.com offers an electric pad which creates moist heat for $59.95 and a microwave “bed buddy” (herbal or nonherbal) can be found for $9.99 to $43.95 at TheWarmingStore.

2.Hand and Toe Warmers:

Hand and toe warmers are small packets placed in the gloves or boots of skiers, campers and hikers to keep the hands and feet warm. These throw away warmers can also be used by anyone with cold hands or feet whether you are shoveling snow, attending an outdoor event in the cold or sitting in a cold, drafty room watching TV. (Walmart, Dick’s, Gander Mountain, www.amazon.com)

3.Knee, Ankle, Wrist, Elbow, Wrist Sleeves:

Supportive sleeves for the joints can provide protection and warmth year round, but especially during the cold winter and early spring. Those made with neoprene material offer warmth and compression and can be valuable when participating in activities such as skiing, walking, running, basketball  name a few. Additionally, it can be helpful for those having joint pain with daily activities such as grocery shopping or house work. These devices should not be used when sitting for prolonged periods of time or sleeping. There is no scientific evidence that supports the use of cooper or magnets weaved into the sleeves for additional pain relief. (available at most pharmacies and medical equipment stores)

4.Compression Shorts and Shirts:

Similar to neoprene sleeves, compression shorts, pants and shirts can be invaluable to those participating in outdoor activities in cold temps. UnderArmor, Reebok, Nike, and others make these products which can also be worn indoors for those working in cool, drafty environments.

5.Hot Tub:

It seems obvious how and why hot water and massaging water jets can soothe the sore joints and muscles. To ensure additional pain and stress relief, add a candle, soft music and a cocktail!

6.Low Impact Exercise for Legs:  

If you suffer from osteoarthritis to the joints of your lower body, you would be well-advised to limit impact activities such as running and basketball. Instead, walk, swim, use the elliptical and bike to protect your joints.

7.Low Impact Exercise for Arms:

As above, if you have arthritis in the joints of the upper body, use low weights, avoid push-ups and dips, which transfer your body weight through the arms.  

8.Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs):

These over-the-counter, non prescription drugs include aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) which are very effective in the treatment of the pain and inflammation associated with arthritis. However, like all drugs, they are not without their risks so one must consult with their primary care physician and pharmacist before using them. For example, NSAIDs can thin the blood, irritate the stomach and may interact with other medications.

9.Topical Creams: Lidocane, Capsacian

Topical analgesics or pain relievers can be rubbed into or sprayed on the skin over the affected area. Some products are counterirritants using menthol, methylsalicylate and camphor which provide a sensation on the skin other than pain. Salicylate based products can work like aspirin to provide relieve from mild pain and inflammation. Capsaicin based products can also provide temporary relief due to the counter stimulation of warmth and tingling. A few things to keep in mind when using these products: one, discuss it with your physician or pharmacist. Two, topical agents are more effective in superficial joints such as the fingers, toes, wrist, elbow, knee and shoulder than in the deep tissues of the hip, buttocks, or lower back. Three, wash your skin thoroughly ater using these products and before using heat, cold or electric stimulation.

10.Massage: The therapeutic benefits of massage are well documented. However, like most treatments, it is important to find a qualified professional that meets your needs. Licensed physical therapists, physical therapist assistants and massage therapists are the best choice. Benefits include; relief from pain, headaches, muscle spasm, and stress, improved relaxation, posture, and breathing.

SOURCES: www.apta.org; www.webmd.com

This article is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. If you have questions related to your medical condition, please contact your family physician. For further inquires related to this topic email: drpmackarey@msn.com

For all of Dr. Mackarey's Articles visit https://mackareyphysicaltherapy.com/forum/

Paul J. Mackarey PT, DHSc, OCS is a Doctor in Health Sciences specializing in orthopaedic and sports physical therapy. Dr. Mackarey is in private practice and is an associate professor of clinical medicine at GCSOM.